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The Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile

Brief history of communism

The Communist Regime in Romania

(Chronology)

 

1944

August 23: By order of King Michael I, Marshal Ion Antonescu is removed from the function of leader of the state and placed under arrest. Romania ceases the alliance with the Axis Powers and its military actions against Soviet units. The Constantin Sănătescu Government is formed.

August 31, 1944: The Red Army enters Bucharest.

September 12, 1944: The truce convention is signed in Moscow.

December 2, 1944: Constantin Sănătescu resigns and is replaced as Prime Minister by General Nicolae Rădescu.

 

1945

February 4-11: The Yalta Convention takes place and the “Declaration of Liberated Europe” is adopted.

February 27: Andrei Vîşinski, on a visit to Bucharest, makes pressures for the dismissal of Nicolae Rădescu and enforcing a new FND government

March 3: General Gheorghe Avramescu dies following an air attack. His death gave rise to controversy, as there were rumours regarding his execution by the NKVD.

March 6: The pro-communist government lead by dr. Petru Groza is formed.

July 27 – August 14: The Conference of Potsdam takes place. THE USA and Great Britain do not recognize the Groza government.

August 20: King Michael I starts the “royal strike”.

October 16-21: PCdR becomes PCR and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej is elected Secretary General.

November 8: A pro-monarchist protest takes place in Bucharest Palatului Square, which ended in 11 deaths and hundreds of arrests by order of the Groza government.

 

1946

January 7: The USA and Great Britain recognize the Groza government. The “royal strike” is over.

March 4-8: The congress for the establishment of the Federation of Democratic Women in Romania is held

May 7-20: “The Trial of the Great National Treason” against Marshal Ion Antonescu and his collaborators is held.

June 1: Ion Antonescu, Mihai Antonescu, Constantin Z. Vasiliu and Gheorghe Alexianu are executed at Jilava.

*** The former PCdR Secretary General Ştefan Foriş is murdered.

November 19: Parliament elections are held following which the Block of Democratic Parties, composed of the PCdR, PSDR, The Ploughmen Front, The Tătărăscu National Liberal Party, The Patriots Union, PNŢ – Anton Alexandrescu and The Jewish Democratic Committee, obtains 378 deputy mandates, while the opposition only gets 36.

 

1947

February 10:  The Paris Peace Treaty is signed

July 14: Ten leaders of the National Peasant Party (PNŢ) are arrested on Tămădău airport: Ion Mihalache, Nicolae Penescu, Nicolae Carandino and Ilie Lazăr. The case attracts attention and is classified as an “act of national treason”.

July 29: The National Peasant Party is outlawed.

October 29 – November 4: The trial against PNŢ leaders takes place, following which Iuliu Maniu and Ion Mihalache are sentenced to forced labour for life.

December 30: King Michael is forced to abdicate and the Parliament proclaims the Popular Republic of Romania

 

1948

January 19The bar associations are eliminated.

February 21-23: The merger between PSDR and PCR takes place, thus creating the Romanian Labour Party

February 24: Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu is dismissed from the position of Minister of Justice and arrested on February 28 under the accusation of chauvinism and bourgeois nationalism and of collaborating with the Security bodies during the interwar period-

March 28: Elections for the Great National Assembly take place and are won by 93,2% by the Popular Democracy Front.

April 13: The Constitution of the Popular Republic of Romania is promulgated.

June 11: Law no. 119 for the nationalization of the industrial, banking, insurance, mining and transport enterprises is adopted. 8,894 enterprises move into the property of the State.

June 29: The State Planning Committee is created.

August 30: Through Decree 221/ 1948 the General Direction for People Security is founded.

December 1: The Greek-Catholic Church United with Rome is liquidated.

 

1949

January 5-8: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance is created in Moscow in reply to the Marshall Plan

January 23: The General Direction of the Militia is founded.

February 7: The Decree no. 163/1949 regarding the creation of the Securitate Troops is adopted

March 2: The Decree 84/1949, stating that all properties bigger than 50 ha would be confiscated.

March 3-5: The Plenary session of the PCR Central Committee takes place following which the collectivization of agriculture begins.

March 19-21: The Labour Youth Union is founded (UTM).

May 25: The Council of Ministers decides the construction of the Danube-Black Sea Channel.

December 6: In Piteşti penitentiary the “re-education” through torture begins.

 

1950

January 14: By the Decree of the MAN Presidium no. 6/1950 labour units (colonies) for the “re-education of the hostilely elements of the Popular Republic of Romania”.

July 23: The administrative reorganization of Romania into 28 regions takes place.

August 20: Constantin I. C. (Dinu) Brătianu passes away at Sighet.

 

1951

March 29: The General Direction for People Security changes its name into the General Direction of State Security.

June 18: The population from 203 localities in Timiş, Caraş-Severin and Mehedinţi Counties are deported in Bărăgan.

July 14:  The first show in Romanian is aired on Free Europe Radio.

August 15: The PNŢ leaders (Iuliu Maniu, Ion Mihalache, Victor Rădulescu-Pogoneanu, Ilie Lazăr, Nicolae Carandino) are transferred to Sighet.

September 10-17: The “trial of a group of spies serving the Vatican”, accused of “treason and conspiracy for the Vatican and the Italian espionage centre”.

 

 1952

January 28: A new monetary reform takes place.

May 26-27: During the Plenary session of the PMR Central Committee, Ana Pauker, Teohari Georgescu and Vasile Luca are accused of “right-wing deviation”.

June 2: Gheorghiu-Dej takes on the position of President of the Council of Ministers.

***august: The “re-education” from Piteşti ceases.

September 24: A new fundamental law is adopted with a preamble emphasizing the dependence of Romania on the USSR.

September 27: A new administrative reform reduces the number of regions from 28 to 18.

 

1953

February 5: Iuliu Maniu passes away in Sighet.

February 7: The self-dissolution of the Ploughmen Front takes place.

March 5: I.V. Stalin dies, which directly impacts the whole Socialist Block.

 

 1954

April 14: After a six year trial, Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu is sentenced to death and executed in the night of April 16-17 in Jilava prison.

April 19: Following the Plenary Session of the Central Committee the position of PMR General Secretary is dissolved and replaced by a secretariat lead by a prime-secretary (Gheorghe Apostol).

May 16: His Eminence Vladimir Ghika passes away in Jilava.

October 10: The trial of the torturers from Piteşti, including Eugen Ţurcanu, begins.

October 8: Vasile Luca is sentenced to death for “undermining the national economy” which was modified into a sentence of forced labour for life.

 

1955

Februay 6: Constantin Argetoianu passes away in Sighet.

February 14: The attack against the Legation of the Popular Republic of Romania in Bern takes place, led by a group of Romanian exiles Oliviu Beldeanu, Ion Chirilă, Dumitru Ochiu, Teodor Ciochină and Stan Codrescu.

May 14: The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance is signed in Warsaw in reply to NATO. Romania, together with the Popular Republic of Albania, the Popular Republic of Bulgaria, The Democratic Republic of Germany, the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, The Popular Republic of Poland, the Popular Republic of Hungary, is integrated in a political-military system dominated by the Soviet Union, a system which comprised the military forces of the socialist states.

October 1: The Plenary session of the PMR Central Committee elected Gheorghiu-Dej prime-secretary of the party.

October 18: Gavril Vatamaniuc, leader of the anti-communist resistance in Bucovinei Mountains, is arrested.

December 14: Romania becomes a UN member.

 

1956

February 25: At the XXth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party Nikita Hrușciov reads a “Secret Report” condemning the excesses of the Stalinist period, thus generating a major transformation within the entire socialist block.

March 23-25: The extended plenary session of the PMR Central Committee takes place where Gheorghiu, following the Hruşciov model, criticizes Stalin’s cult of personality, referring to Ana Pauker, Vasile Luca and Teohari Georgescu. Iosif Chişinevski and Miron Constantinescu take the opportunity to attack Gheorghiu-Dej in hope he will be replaced as party leader.

April 3, 4, 6, 12: The meeting of the Political Bureau of the PMR Central Committee takes place, confirming Gheorghiu-Dej’s supremacy in the party and the defeat of Iosif Chişinevski – Miron Constantinescu formation.

June 28 – 30: The riot of the workers in Poznań – Poland results in 70 deaths and 600 injured.

October 23 – November 4: The Revolution in Hungary is violently supressed by the Red Army, resulting in approximately 2,500 deaths.

End of October: Against the background of the Hungarian crisis situation, protests in Romanian arise, initiated and coordinated by students of the main university centres in Cluj, Bucharest, Timişoara, Târgu Mureş, Iaşi.

October 30: A major gathering of the students in Timişoara takes place resulting in the investigation of more than 2,000 students and the sentencing of the organizers (Caius Muţiu, Teodor Stanca, Aurel Baghiu, Aurelian Păuna, Ladislau Nagy).

November 15-16: Several students and academics, Raul Volcinschi among others, are arrested in Cluj.

November 22: Paul Goma is arrested for “public agitation” – attempt of organizing a strike for supporting the arrested students and is sentenced to 2 years in correctional prison.

 

1957

July 3: Following a failed attempt of compromising and excluding Dej from the party, at the plenary session of the PCR Central Committee, Iosif Chişinevschi and Miron Constantinescu, out favoured, are released from their functions.

July 19: Leon Şuşman, leader of one of the most important Romanian anti-communist resistance groups, is shot.

August 2: Ion Chiujdea, Laurian and Gheorghe Haşu, Victor Metea and Jean Pop, members of the anti-communist resistance in Făgăraş Mountains led by Ion-Gavrilă Ogoranu, are sentenced to death.

November 4: The plane accident from Vnukovo airport takes place, leading to the death of Grigore Preoteasa, former Minister of foreign affairs. Chivu Stoica and Nicolae Ceauşescu, who were also on the plane, were uninjured.

December 7: Iosif Capotă and Alexandru Dejeu, leaders of an anti-communist resistance group in Apuseni Mountains, are arrested, sentenced to death and executed in Gherla penitentiary.

 

1958

January 7: Petru Groza, president of the MAN presidium, dies and is replaced by Ion Gheorghe Maurer.

January 23: General Constantin Pantazi, war minister, dies in Râmnicu Sărat penitentiary (1942-1944).

February 1/2: Teodor and Avisalon Şuşman, members of the Resistance from Apuseni mountains, are murdered.

April 10: The National Women Council is founded following the elimination of UFDR.

May 20-24: At the CAER council in Moscow the retreat of the Soviet troops from Romanian territory is announced. At the same time, a new wave of arrests takes place and the conditions in prisons are roughened.

June 9-13: Several former “underground fighters”, Constantin Doncea, Pavel Ştefan, Ovidiu Șandru şi Grigore Răceanu among others, are excluded from the party under the accusation of “factious and antiparty attitude”.

June 14: The riot of the political prisoners in Gherla takes place.

July 29: Vasile Motrescu, anticommunist fighter from Bucovinei Mountains, is executed. August 4: Members of the Rugul Aprins spiritual group from the Antim Monastery in Bucharest, are arrested. Among them are priests Dumitru Stăniloae, Benedict Ghiuş, Andrei Scrima, Arsenie Papacioc, Bartolomeu Anania, as well as writer Vasile Voiculescu and philosopher Mircea Vulcănescu.

December 11: Constantin Noica is arrested by the communist authorities for organizing gatherings for philosophical debate in Câmpulung, as well as for printing and disseminating the „Povestiri despre om” [Stories about man] novel abroad.

 

1959

July 18: Petre and Toma Arnăuţoiu, leaders of the resistance group “Haiducii Muscelului” [The Outlaws of Muscel], are executed.

July 28: A group of six former outlaws of Jewish origin, Alexandru and Paul Ioanid, Monica and Igor Sevianu, Sașa Mușat and Haralambie Obodeanu, rob a state bank of the Romanian Popular Republic. Following trial, the five men are sentenced to death and executed. Monica Sevianu was sentenced to forced labour for life.

September 15: Corneliu Mănescu is elected vice-president of the 14th ordinary session of the UN General Assembly.

October 28: The decree no. 410/1959, regarding the situation of the domestic monasteries and the banishment of more than half of the monks, comes into force.

 

1960

February 13: Mihail Romniceanu passes away at the Râmnicu Sărat Penitentiary.

February 18: Oliviu Beldeanu, the main character of the attack upon the PRR legation in Switzerland of February 14, 1955, is executed.

May 29:  Lt. Colonel Gheorghe Arsenescu, leader of the resistance group in Făgăraş Mountains, is executed in Jilava.

February 24: The trial of the Noica-Pillat group begins.

June 3: Ana Pauker, former Minister of Foreign Affairs, dies from breast cancer.

June 20-25: The 3rd Congress of PMR takes place, instating Gheorghiu Dej’s total control over the party.

December 27: A new administrative organization reduces the number of regions to 16.

 

1961

March 21: The MAN presidium replaces the State Council under the leadership of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. Ion Gheorghe Maurer becomes president of the Council of Ministers and Corneliu Mănescu is appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.

May 6: Poet and philosopher Lucian Blaga dies.

August 13: The construction of the Berlin wall, meant to mark the territorial separation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Democratic Republic of Germany, begins.

September 25: The PRR Council of Defence is created.

November 30: During the plenary session of the PMR Central Committee, Gheorghiu-Dej accuses Ana Pauker and Teohari Georgescu of the abuses committed during the collectivization (80,000 arrested peasants and 30,000 involved in public trials).

December 1: Romania is elected permanent member of the UN Council of Security for 1962.

 

1962

March 10: Victor Rădulescu-Pogoneanu dies in Văcăreşti penitentiary following the regime he had been subjected to in Râmnicu Sărat

April 23-25: At the plenary session of PMR Central Committee the finalization of collectivization is announced. Two days later, on April 27, Gheorghiu-Dej announces the collectivization of 96% of the country’s arable surface in the MAN plenum.

June 27: Aurelian Bentoiu, former Minister of Justice, dies at Văcăreşti.

September 27: Through Decree 772, 1,540 political prisoners are released.

 

1963

January 3: Through Decree 2,543 political prisoners are pardoned.

February 5: Ion Mihalache dies at Râmnicu Sărat penitentiary.

June 12: The Agreement for the construction of the hydropower complex Porţile de Fier [The Iron Gates] is signed.

July 27: Former Minister of Finance, Vasile Luca, dies in detention in Aiud.

 

1964

April 15-22: At the extended plenary session of the PMR Central Committee, the Declaration on the position of the Romanian Labour Party regarding the issues of the international communist and labour movement is adopted.

June 16: 3,467 political prisoners are pardoned.

July 24: 3,244 political prisoners are pardoned.

 

1965

March 19: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, president of the State Council and prime secretary of PMR, dies.

March 22: Following the plenary session of the PMR Central Committee, Nicolae Ceauşescu is elected prime secretary of PMR and Chivu Stoica is assigned president of the State Council.

July 19-24: The IXth Congress of PCR is held. The name of the party changes from PMR in PCR. Nicolae Ceauşescu is elected secretary general of the PCR.

July 24: Alexandru Drăghici is dismissed from the position of Minister of Interior.

August 21: The Great National Assembly adopts a new Constitution. The Socialist Republic of Romania is proclaimed.

 

1966

May 16-19: The decision of creating the General Association of Trade Unions (UGSR).

October 1: The Decree 770/1966 for the regulation of abortions. At the same time, a restrictive legislation on divorce is adopted.

 

1967

September 19: Corneliu Mănescu is elected president of the 22nd session of the UN General Assembly.

December 9: The Great National Assembly replaces Chivu Stoica with Nicolae Ceauşescu as president of the State Council. A new government is formed under the leadership of Ion Gheorghe Maurer.

 

1968

February 16: The Great National Assembly adopted Law no. 2 regarding the administrative organization of the territory of the Socialist Republic of Romania. The traditional organization by counties is restored. Romania included 39 counties, 2,706 communes, 47 municipalities (including Bucharest and Constanţa) and 189 cities.

April 3: By Decree no. 295 the Council for State Security is founded.

April 22-25: The plenary session of the PCR Central Committee rehabilitating Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu

May 18:  Charles de Gaulle’s official visit to Bucharest.

August 16: The Treaty of Friendship, Collaboration and Mutual Assistance between the Socialist Republic of Romania and the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia is signed in Prague.

August 20-21: Militayy forces of the Warsaw Treaty (the Soviet Union, Democratic Republic of Germany, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria) invaded Czechoslovakia.

August 21: A protest against the invasion of Czechoslovakia is organized in Bucharest.

Nicolae Ceauşescu fermly condemns the armed intervention.

August 22: The Declaration of the Great National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Romania regarding the basic principles of Romania’s foreign policy is adopted.

September 4: The patriotic guards are reinstated.

October 25: The Front for Socialist Unity is founded.

November 15: The law no. 33/1968 regarding the preparation of the youth for the defence of the country is adopted.

 

1969

January 29: Alexandru Bârlădeanu is dismissed, on request, from the position of vice-president of the Council of Ministers.

July 30: The Decree nr. 547/1969 for the ratification of the Convention on the indefeasibility of war crimes and crimes against humanity, adopted by the UN General Assembly on November 26, 1968, is adopted.

July 28: Dissident Vasile Paraschiv is arrested for the first time and is forcedly admitted to the Urlați Psychiatry Hospital.

August 2-3: USA President, Richard Nixon, visits Romania.

August 6-12: The 10th PCR Congress takes place.

 

1970

February 19: The Academy of Social and Political Science of RSR (Socialist Republic of Romania) is founded.

May 28: Bishop Iuliu Hossu passes away in Bucharest.

June 15-19: Nicolae Ceaușescu’s official visit to France (at the invitation of Georges Pompidou).

July 15: The Central Committee for the Systematization of Rural and Urban Localities is created.

October 13-27: The Ceauşescu couple visits the USA for the first time at Richard Nixon’s invitation.

 

1971

June 1-24: Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu go on an official visit to four Asian communist states: China, North Korea, Northern Vietnam and Mongolia.

July 6: In the C.Ex. meeting of the PCR Central Committee the Proposed measures for the improvement of the political-ideological activity for Marxist-leninist education of party members, of all labourers, known as the July Theses, which generate a “cultural mini-revolution” after the Chinese model are adopted.

November 3-5: In the plenary session of the PCR Central Committee the ideological program of the party is adopted, based on the July Theses, thus putting an end to the brief post-1965 liberation period.

December 17: MAN adopts Law no. 23/1971 regarding the protection of the state secret in the Socialist Republic of Romania, Law no. 24/1971 regarding Romanian citizenship, compelling citizens to declare their connections and discussions with foreigners and the loss of citizenship for “he who, by separating from his country, breaks his vow of fidelity to his country, betrays the interests of the people, acts against humanity, sovereignty and independence of the state or commits any other hostile acts or deeds that could affect the good name of Romania”.

1972

May 16: Nicolae Ceauşescu and Iosip Broz Tito inaugurate the hydropower and navigation system in Porţile de Fier.

September 23: The initial performance of the “Revizorul” (Der Revisor) play takes place at Bulandra Theatre, director Lucian Pintilie. After only three performances the play is forbidden and Liviu Ciulei, director of the theatre, is dismissed.

December 9: Romania adheres to the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

December 28: Law no. 14/1972 regarding the organization of the national defense of the Socialist Republic of Romania is adopted.

 

1973

June 18-19: The plenary session of the PCR Central Committee elects Elena Ceauşescu as member of the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party. The decision to resume works on the Danube-Black Sea Channel is made.

December 4-8: The second visit to the USA of the Ceauşescu couple takes place at Richard Nixon’s invitation.

 

1974

February 27: Manea Mănescu is named president of the Council of Ministers replacing Ion Gh. Maurer.

March 1: Elena Ceauşescu is elected titular member of the RSR Academy.

March 28: The Great National Assembly establishes the position of President of the RSR, position occupied by Nicolae Ceauşescu by unanimous election.

August 19–30: The World People Conference is held in Bucharest.

December 1: Law no. 58/1974 regarding the systematization of the territory and of the urban and rural localities is adopted.

October 29: Law no. 57/1974 regarding the remuneration according to the quantity and quality of labor is adopted.

November 4: The USA Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, makes a visit to Bucharest.

November 25-28: The 11th PCR Congress takes place and adopts the Program of the Romanian Communist Party of building the socialist multilateral society and moving Romania towards communism.

 

1975

July 28: The USA Congress votes for the introduction of the   Most Favoured Nation Clause in the relations with RSR.

July 3-18: Severe floods take place in Romania, leading to the declaration of a state of necessity.

August 1: Romania signs, along with other 34 states, the final act of the Helsinki Conference, emphasizing human rights.

 

1976

January 24: Emil Bodnăraş, vicepresident of the State Council, passes away.

July 18: Nadia Comăneci obtains the first 10 in the history of gymnastics at the Montreal Olympic Games.

December 10: The “Șoimii Patriei” [Falcons of the Country] Organization is created with the purpose of contributing to the “moral-civic education of children in the spirit of humanism, love and respect for the country and its people, for the Romanian Communist Party”.

 

1977

January 28: Paul Goma distributes an open letter of adhesion to the Charter 77 to several diplomats in Bucharest.

March 4: An earthquake of 7.2 magnitude occurred, leading to the death of 1,570 people and the injury of 11,300. Over 30 buildings and large blocks in Bucharest collapsed during the quake. More than 35,000 homes were devastated.

March 22: Nicolae Ceauşescu decides on the “urbanistic restoration” of Bucharest

March 27: Patriarch Justinian Marina passes away.

August 1-3: The miners in Valea Jiului rebel against the extremely difficult work conditions, the prohibition of holding a salary along with an invalidity pension, as well as increasing the retirement age from 50 to 52.

 

1978

***February: Vasile Paraschiv holds a press conference in Paris regarding the use of psychiatry in Romania as a means of political repression.

June 13-16: Nicolae Ceaușescu makes an official visit to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and is received with honours by Queen Elisabeth II.

July 24: Ion Mihai Pacepa, deputy-head of the Foreign Information Department asks for asylum at the USA Embassy in Bonn.

 

1979

March 8-10: The President of the French Republic, Valery Giscard d’Estaing, visits Romania.

March 10: The Free Union of Workers in Romania (SLOMR) is formed. The members of the union, Ionel Cană among others, are arrested and prosecuted. Vasile Paraschiv, one of the members, is admitted by force to a psychiatric hospital.

March 30: Manea Mănescu is replaced by Ilie Verdeţ as head of the government.

June 7: Elena Ceauşescu is named president of the National Council for Science and Technology.

July 25: The Decree no. 277/1979 regarding some measures for rationalizing fuel consumption and the wary management of the vehicle fleet is adopted.

November 16: The first subway section in Bucharest, part of Artery I comprising six stations between Semănătoarea and Timpuri Noi, is inaugurated.

November 19-23: The 12th PCR Congress takes place. Former underground communist fighter Constantin Pârvulescu harshly criticized Ceauşescu’s claim of being re-elected President of the Country, as well as his growing cult of personality. Constantin Pârvulescu was considered a pro-Soviet traitor, removed from his position and then placed in house arrest.

 

1980

March 28: Nicolae Ceauşescu is elected for the third time as President of RSR.

March 30: The plenary session of the PCR Central Committee, the Great National Assembly (M.A.N.) elects the State Council and the Government. Elena Ceaușescu is elected Prime-Viceprime-Minister of the Government.

May 16: Writer Marin Preda suddenly dies at his house in Mogoşoaia.

September 17: In Poland “Solidarity” trade union is founded.

October 14: The Decree no. 313/1980 regarding the assistance of dangerous mentally ill patients is adopted.

 

1981

May 14: The first flight in space of a Romanian takes place: aviation pilot Dumitru Prunariu.

July 28: While heading towards the garage of his home in Munchen, Emil Georgescu, radio show maker at Radio Free Europe, is stabbed by two French citizens hired by the Securitate.

October 19: The riot of the miners in Motru begins against the difficult work conditions and starvation. The protest is crushed in a few hours after the intervention of the authorities.

 

1982

May 21: Constantin Dăscălescu is elected prime-minister by the MAN.

May 22: The “Tănase affair” appears in the French media.

July iulie: The official newspaper of the Party, Scânteia, published the “Program for scientific alimentation of the population”. The majority of the basic food products are rationalized.

 

1983

March 28: The Decree no. 98/1983 regarding the regime of multiplying machines, materials necessary for the reproduction of writings and typing machines is adopted, stating that “the persons who, in accordance to their criminal records and behaviour, pose a threat to the public order or the security of the State cannot be authorised to own typing machines”.

March 28: The Decree no. 94/1983 regarding the declaration of animals, the selling and cutting of cattle and horses is adopted, forbidding farmers to sacrifice animals for consumption.

May 21: A new government is instated lead by Constantin Dăscălescu.

August 3: The Conference in Mangalia is held, dedicated to the “issues regarding organization and political-educational work”. Nicolae Ceauşescu reiterates the July 1971 Theses and criticizes the movie “Faleze de nisip” [Sand Cliffs] directed by Dan Piţa.

December 13: Poet Nichita Stănescu passes away.

1984

January 27: Dumitru Iuga, founder of the “Movement for Liberty and Social Justice in Romania” (MLDSR), is sentenced by the Military Court to 12 years in prison, military degradation and deprivation of some rights, for the crime of conspiracy.

May 27: The Danube – Black Channel, resumed in 1973, is inaugurated. At the inauguration it is declared the third largest navigation channel in the world.

June 25: The Ceauşescu couple inaugurates the foundation of the House of the People and the “Victory of Socialism” boulevard.

June 28: Nicolae Ceauşescu is re-elected President of RSR.

July 28 – August 12: The 23rd edition of the Olympic Games takes place in Los Angeles and Romania is the only country from the Soviet Block to participate.

December 4: Ştefan Voitec, former president of MAN, passes away.

 

1985

January 9: The demolition of the Văcăreşti monastery ensemble is approved.

July 11: Nicolae Ceauşescu is awarded the title of titular member and president of honour of the RSR Academy.

October 7: The moving of the Mihai Vodă church in Bucharest begins.

December 16: General Vasile Milea is named Minister of Defense.

December 26: The Decree no. 411 of 1985 regarding the modification of article 2 of Decree no. 770/1966 regarding the regulation of abortion, the legislation regarding the limitation of abortion thus becoming more restrictive than in the previous years.

September 21: Engineer Gheorghe Ursu is arrested. He dies as a result of the inhumane treatments he was subjected to while under the Securitate arrest at Rahova.

August 11: The former director of the General Direction for the Security of the People and deputy of the Minister of Interior from the Dej period, Gheorghe Pintilie, dies and is buried with military honours.

 

1986

February: The Crângaşi cemetery in Bucharest is moved in order to build a lake.

May 7: Mircea Eliade, in exile, passes away in Chicago.

May 7: The football team Steaua Bucureşti wins European Champions Cup.

July 31: The Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Justin Moisescu, passes away.

November 27: The Doamna Oltea church in Bucharest is demolished.

*** November: Local incidents occur in important industrial centres, like Turda and Cluj.

April 26: The fourth reactor of the Nuclear Plant in Cernobîl explodes with dezastrous long term effects.

December 2-15: The Văcăreşti monastery is demolished.

 

1987

February 16: The Nicolina workshops in Iaşi go on strike.

June 19-20: Sfânta Vineri church in Bucharest is demolished.

August 26: Sfântul Spiridon Vechi in Bucharest is demolished.

October 3: Tudor Postelnicu is assigned Minister of Interior and Iulian Vlad is assigned head of Department for State Security.

October 7-9: The churches Sfânta Treime Dudeşti and Bradu Staicu in Bucharest are demolished.

November 15: As a consequence of deteriating living conditions, the riot of the workers from Tractorul and Steagul Roşu factories in Braşov emerges.

November 19: Doina Cornea and her son, Leontin  Iuhas, are placed under arrest for the dissemination of manifestos of solidarity with the workers.

December 12: Radu Filipescu is arrested, investigated, and abused for the distribution of manifestos demanging a referendum.

December 24: Gabriel Andreescu is arrested under the accusation of “treason” for distributing anticommunist manifestos.

 

1988

February 26: Romania is deprived of the Most Favoured Nation Clause granted by the USA in 1975.

August 30: Poet Ana Blandiana loses the right to publish following the launch of a children’s book mocking Nicolae Ceauşescu.

October: The “Villages Roumains” operation is organized Brussels.

 

1989

January 26: Journalists Petre Mihai Băcanu, Mihai Creangă and Anton Uncu are arrested.

March 2: Liviu Babeş protests by setting himself on fire on the Braşov ski slope.

March 11: BBC and Free Europe radio stations air the letter written by six important members of the Romanian Communist Party: Gheorghe Apostol, Alexandru Bârlădeanu, Corneliu Mănescu, Grigore Răceanu, Constantin Pârvulescu and Silviu Brucan, singaling the errors of the Ceauşescu administration.

March 13: Diplomat Mircea Răceanu is sentenced to death.

November 9: The fall of the Berlin wall.

November 10: Replacing Todor Jivkov in Bulgaria.

November 17: The “velvet revolution in Czechoslovakia” takes place.

November 20-24: The 14th congress of the PCR takes place.

December 14: A gathering takes place in the Unirii Square in Iaşi which is suppressed by the Securitate.

December 15: The first anti-regime demonstrations take place in Timişoara. The protests spread and in a few days turn into a mass revolt. The authorities intervene brutally by opening fire on the protesters.

December 22: Ceauşescu leaves the headquarters of the PCR Central Committee. A void of power is created, generating several violent uncontrolled actions.

December 25: Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu are sentenced to death following a rapid trial and are executed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Adam Burakowski – Dictatura lui Nicolae Ceauşescu 1965-1989. Geniul Carpaţilor [Nicolae Ceauşescu’s Dictatorship 1965-1989. Genius of the Carpathians]. Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2011.

Comisia Prezidenţială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România – Raport Final [The Presidential Commission for the Analysis of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania – Final Report], Editura Humanitas, Bucureşti, 2007.

Dennis Deletant – Ceauşescu şi Securitatea [Ceauşescu and the Securitate], Editura Humanitas, Bucureşti, 1998.

Dinu C. Giurescu, Alexandru Ştefănescu, Ilarion Ţiu – România şi comunismul. O istorie Ilustrată. [Romania and Communism. An Illustrated History] Editura Corint, Bucureşti, 2010.

Alin Mureşan – Piteşti. Cronica unei sinucideri asistate. Ediţia a II-a [Piteşti – the Chronic of an Assisted Suicide], Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2011.

Cristina Păiuşan, Narcis Dorin Ion, Mihai Retegan, Regimul comunist din Romania. O cronologie politică (1945-1989) [The Communist Regime in Romania. A political chronology (1945-1989)], Editura Tritonic, Seria „Istorie“, 2002.

Romulus Rusan, România în timpul războiului rece [Romania during the Cold War], Fundaţia Academia Civică, 2008.