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The Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile

Chronology of the Romanian Exile

 

 1947

December 30: King Michael is forced to sign his declaration of abdication. In January he leaves the country and tries to advocate the cause of Romania abroad.

1948

February 1: In Paris the Information Bulletin for Romanians in Exile (B.I.R.E.) is published on the initiative of Martin Economu, former director and owner of the Bucharest newspaper Finanţe şi Industrie [Finance and Industry]. Starting January 1, 1951, after Martin Economu’s retirement, Rene Theo will direct and own the publication.

1949

January 26-28: The Congress for free Eastern-European refugees is held in London. The Declaration regarding the rights and liberties of the citizen from the countries of the “Socialist camp”. Cornel Bianu and Raul Gheorghiu represented the Romanians in exile.

*** January: The magazine of Christian culture „Suflet românesc” [Romanian soul], coordinated by Gheorghe Cosma is published in Rome.

***February: The Romanian-Austrian Association aiming to support Romanians in exile is founded in Vienna.

*** February: Grigore Gafencu takes part in the first Congress of the European Movement (M.E.) in Brussels as member of the Executive Committee of the M.E. International Council.

April 6: The Romanian National Committee (C.N.R.) is founded in Washington with the objective of representing the Romanian nation and to protect its interests until de moment of national liberation, restoration of the democratic system in Romania and the coordination and support of the Romanian exiles. The structure of C.N.R., approved by King Michael, included Nicolae Rădescu (president), Cornel Bianu, Grigore Niculecu-Buzești, Grigore Gafencu, Alexandru Cretzianu, Iancu Zissu, Nicolae Caranfil, Constantin Vișoianu (members).

May 1: Virgil Mihăilescu and a group of Romanians found the Romanian Library in Freiburg in order to preserve the Romanian cultural inheritance in the West.

August 6: The “Romania” Cultural Society is founded in Sao Paolo in order to promote Romanian culture.

*** Grigore Gafencu organizes the Romanian Group for a United Europe in the USA.

1950

May 28: The Romanian National Committee organizes public protests against the regime of terror in Bucharest in several cities from the USA.

July 4: The first show of the Free Europe radio station is aired in New York. The first director of the Romanian department was Mihail Fărcășanu (1950-1951) and the first show in Romanian aired on July 14.

August 11: The “Mihai Viteazul” Cultural Association is founded in Toronto on the initiative of the Group of New Romanian Emigrants in Canada.

November 18: The local section of the A.S.T.R.U organization (Association of United Students) is created in Graz in order to support students abroad.

December 8: On the initiative of King Michael and the National Romanian Committee, the “Carol I” Royal University Foundation is re-formed in Paris, under the presidency of Petre Sergescu.

1951

***January: The „Cuget Românesc” culture magazine is published in Buenos Aires in order to “propagate Romanian culture and literature in Brazil and other countries”.

*** January: The “Vatra” magazine is published in Rome under the subtitle “Romanian opinion and information paper”. The publication is coordinated by Petre Vălimăreanu and published until 1994.

*** The “Andrei Mureşanu” Cultural Group is founded in Rio de Janeiro

March: “The Romanian” newspaper belonging to the Association of Free Romanians in the USA (subsequently League of Free Romanians), founded by Nicolae Rădescu, is published in New York. It is published until March 1963.

***September: The bulletin of the Romanian United Church is published in Buenos Aires under the title “The Christian Courier”. Princess Ileana, Vintilă Horia, Theodor Scorțescu, Ion Dan, Gheorghe Rusu were among its collaborators.

*** The Association of the Romanians in Australia (A.R.A.) is created in Sydney under the presidency of Gheorghe Sandu.

1952

*** The Association of the Romanians in Canada is created in Montreal (A.R.C.).

*** The headquarters of Free Europe radio station is established in Munich.

July 25: The “Iuliu Maniu” Romanian-American Foundation is founded in New York.

 1953

December 1: The “Pro Basarabia” Association is founded in Paris with the aim of supporting the knowledge of the history of Romanian provinces Bessarabia and Bucovina

*** The first volume of “Revue des etudes roumaines”, published by the “Carol I” University Institute, appears in Paris.

 1954

April 5: On Leonid Mămăligă’s initiative, the Romanian Literary Club is founded, with Mircea Eliade as president of honour.

July 8: The Associations of Romanians in Austria, the Romanian Literary Club in Munich and the Association of Germans in Romania found the Coordination Centre in Exile based in Munich. The official purpose of the Centre was “uniting the Romanian exile”.

September 20: The Alliance of the Captive Nations (A.N.E.C) is formed. One of its basic principles of this organization is the liberation of the countries “from the Soviet rule and from the communist dictatorship”.

 1955

January 16: The Union of Romanian Associations in Germany (U.A.R.G.) is founded in Bonn in order to unite the organizations and associations of the Romanian exile in Germany.

February 14: The legation of the Romanian Popular Republic in Bern is attacked by a group of Romanian exiles: Oliviu Beldeanu, Ion Chirilă, Dumitru Ochiu, Teodor Ciochină and Stan Codrescu.

May 10: The “General Nicolae Rădescu” Association of Free Romanian Refugees in France is founded. Ștefan Racoceanu and Petre Ionașcu were part of the Executive Committee.

November 27: The “Pro Basarabia” Association changes its name to „Pro Basarabia-Bucovina”.

 1956

June 11: The trial of the group comprised of Oliviu Beldeanu, Stan Codrescu, Ion Chirilă and Dumitru Ochiu takes place. Public figures such as Mihai Fărcășanu, Grigore Gafencu, Ion Rațiu, etc. spoke in defence of the Bern group.

June 21: The Federal Court announced the verdict for the group of exiles involved in the Bern attack.

***September: The League of Romanians for Human Rights” under presidency of Nicolae Dianu is registered at the Paris court.

 1957

January 12: The Organization of Romanian Workers from Exile is founded in Paris with Mihai P. Costăchescu as president and George Șonea as secretary general.

January 30: Grigore Gafencu – diplomat, memoire writer and journalist, one of the founding members of the Union of European Federalists, passes away.

April 15: The Romanian Cultural Association in Spain is founded. The leading committee includes Vintilă Horia, George Uscătescu, Aurel Răuță ș.a.

July 25: Major George Emil Iliescu, former military attaché in England and president of the English-Romanian Committee, passes away.

 1958

*** The CAROMAN Association in Paris publishes quarterly information and documentation bulletin entitled “The guide of the Romanian Refugee”.

 1959

March 15: The first Romanian Orthodox Church in South America is built in Buenos Aires.

1960

*** A group of Romanian exiles, part of the Asociacion Enciclopedica Rumana in Mexico, decides to write an encyclopaedia on the Romanian contribution to universal culture. Among the project’s initiators were Nicolae Petra and Horia Tănăsescu.

 1961

***January: The House of the Romanian Emigrants and the „I. Zissu” Library are founded in Tel Aviv.

1963

***September: The first issue of the „Drum” [Road] literary magazine is published in Ciudad de Mexico on the initiative of Nicolae Petra, Nicolae Novac, Nicolae Cârjă. The magazine is published until 1983.

*** The „Ființa Românească” {Romanian Being] culture magazine is launched in Paris. The editorial committee is formed of Mircea Eliade, Vintilă Horia, Virgil Veniamin. Seven issues are published, that last one in 1968.

 1965

May 1: Noël Bernard is appointed director of the Romanian department of Radio Free Europe.

May 15: “The Cultural Association of Romanians in England” is founded in London (A.C.A.R.D.A.) with Ion Raţiu as president.

 1969

***September: The literary magazine “Limite” [Limits] is published in Paris. It will appear on an annual or bi-annual basis. The editors were Virgil Ierunca, Nicolae Petra and Aurel Răuță.

1972

March 1: The Romanian political parties in exile send a memoire to King Michael requesting the dissolution of the Romanian National Committee and the creation of a new political body.

 1973

***March: The (Almanac of the Prison of Silence) „Catacombes”, under the coordination of Sergiu Grossu, is published in Paris.

May 27: The Federation of the Romanian Associations in Canada is created. The main intention was to unite in a single federation the associations interested in developing Romanian culture in Canada. The press body was „Courrier Roumain” published in Romanian, French and English.

*** The „Ethos” literature magazine is published, with Ioan Cușă și Virgil Ierunca as editors. The literary publication appears until 1984.

 1974

***November: Paul Goma’s Elles étaient quatre novel is published at Gallimard publishing house.

***December: The Association of the French People of Romanian Origin (A.F.D.O.R.) is formed. It aimed to support Romanian refugees and to “show the French public opinion the truth about the realities in Romania”.

 1975

April 21: The British Romanian Foundation is founded in London with the support of A.C.A.R.D.A.

***September: The literary magazine of the Israeli Writers Association „Izvoare” is published in Tel Aviv. It appears until 1985.

 1976

March 22: In the A.C.A.R.D.A. meeting, Nicolae Penescu launches a Call to organize the Romanian exile

***May: The „Cuvântul Românesc” [Romanian Word] newspaper, monthly publication, led by George Bălaşu, is launched in Hamilton.

*** TheInternational Journal of Romanian Studies” magazine is published in Amsterdam under the aegis of the International Association of Romanian Studies ((A.I.S.R.). The magazine is published until 1998 in a new series, with Sorin Alexandrescu as head editor.

 1977

February 19: The Democrat Club of the Romanians in Germany (CDR) is formed in Frankfurt. Initiators: Ștefan Țiu and Aurel Lepădatu.

 1978

January 11: A new series of the “Curentul” newspaper is published in Munich, a follow up of the paper published by Pamfil Șeicaru in Bucharest from 1928 to 1944. The newspaper is published annually and bi-annually until 1992.

 1979

*** February: The Community of the Romanians in Switzerland is created, with Ion Broșteanu as president. The headquarters of the community is based in Geneva.

 1980

***April: The „Uniunea Română” [Romanian Union] Society is created with the purpose of solving social issues of the Romanians in Australia.

November 8: The Association of Former Political Prisoners in Romania, based in Paris, declares November 8 Day of the Romanian Political Prisoner in order to commemorate all the victims of the communist expansion in Romania.

 1981

February 21: The Free Europe radio station is attacked by order of the Securitate.

1982

 January 1: The International Organization of the Political Dissidents from Communist Countries is founded in Los Angeles, with Emilian Dinu as president.

***September: The “La Maison Roumaine” Association, with the mission of raising awareness on the Romanian culture and traditions in France, is founded in Paris with Christina Sturdza as president and Alexandru Ghica as vice-president.

 1983

February 27: The “Unirea” Romanian Cultural Association is founded in Calgary with the purpose of promoting culture and the relations with the Romanian associations in Canada.

***March: The „Arhanghelul Mihail”Association is founded in Vienna in order to “undertake humanitarian activities benefiting the Romanian refugees in Austria”. Dorina Gabor represented the association as president.

 1984

June 18-19: Paul Goma organizes the conference on the topic “Pacifism or defensive will” in Paris.

August 23: The Association of Romanians from Federal Germany and West Berlin protest against communism in Köln.

 1985

*** Radu Câmpeanu, Dinu Zamfirescu and Ion Vitez found the Club of Liberal Action and Thought in Paris. Its mission was to gather the liberals from European countries and debate on various issues of liberal doctrine.

 1986

November 10: The Romanian Research Institute is founded in Munich.

 1987

May 25: The League for the Protection of Human Rights in Romania organizes a meeting with the press in Paris. Maria Brătianu, Sanda Stolojan, Mihnea Berindei, Paul Goma presented the situation in Romania, emphasizing the issue of human rights infringement.

December 17: The League for the Protection of Human Rights in Romania organizes a protest in front of the Romanian Embassy in Paris, demanding the immediate release of Doina Cornea and of her son, Leontin Iuhas, of Radu Filipescu and the cease of  Marianei Botez’s isolation.

*** Under the aegis of the Foreign Policy Research Institute din Philadelphia the alternative culture magazine „Agora” is published. Editor-in-chief: Dorin Tudoran. Editors: Paul Goma, Vladimir Tismăneanu, Mihai Botez, Mihnea Berindei, Victor Frunză etc.

 1988

May 21-23: The Congress of the International Federation for Human Rights takes place in Montreal.

September 14: A protest against the demolition of Romanian villages takes place in from of the Romanian Embassy in Paris.

December 30: The Voice of America radio station broadcasts a correspondence from Paris regarding the situation in Romania, signed by Radu Portocală.

 1989

***February: As a result of the actions taken by the Ceaușescu regime to destroy the Romanian historical, cultural and ethnological patrimony, a group of young journalist, architects, photographers, jurists and artists take action in the “Villages Roumaines” operation.

February 2: In the „Actualitatea Românească” show, radio Free Europe broadcasts King Michael’s message addressed to the UN Commission for Human Rights.

December 21: The Voice of America broadcasts the editorial “Romania. The days of the dictator are over”.

 

Bibliography:

Dumitru Dobre, O istorie în date a exilului și emigrației românești (1949-1989) [A history of the Romanian exile and emigration in figures], Editura Militară, București, 2013.

Florin Manolescu, Enciclopedia Exilului Literar Românesc 1945-1949 [The Encyclopaedia of the Romanian Literary Exile], Editura Compania, București, 2003.