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The Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile

Details reports criminal sheets-political prisoners

Institute for the investigation of Communist crimes and the memory of the Romanian exile (I.I.C.C.M.E.R.) published on its website (www.crimelecomunismului.ro) data sheet in political prisoners. These are of particular value, both by the nature of the information provided, as well as from the perspective of practical data.

In the period 1947-1989, prisons and labor colonies of Romania were the places where they were held for tens of thousands of people whose only fault was that I do not approve of the new political and social order imposed by the Romanian Communist Party. These people have entered a penitentiary system which he regarded as even more dangerous than ordinary criminals, being subject to administrative, but relish suffering in addition due to the stigma of political prisoner. Each detainee was made at least a criminal transcript. Prison records/fact sheets with specific mentions criminal reports were kept in the archive of the General Directorate of penitentiaries (today the national administration of penitentiaries) and centralized at Jilava penitentiary.

A prison have a shape type, which varied depending on the period in which the prisoners were in fact sheet drawn up a sheet with effect cardboard boxes on both the front and back sides. In addition to the particulars of each person (name, surname, date of birth, place of birth, their parents and their residence) and the related administrative conviction (deed and short description of the article, the term of arrest, judgment, and sentence length), there is also a series of characteristic of political prisoner (occupation, wealth, social origin and political affiliation). The most important feature of these plugs is dividing data between prisoner period before and the period after regime of "popular democracy".

Please note that items under which they were arrested and convicted these people are part of the many variations of the criminal code.

The most common facts for which these men were convicted are:

  1. Art. 193/i: activity against the working class-it was about an article, contained in Decree No. 62/1955 and unpublished, whose characteristic was very broad scope of coverage, here may be assigned any of the accusations. In General, it is used for those who could not be employed in articles of the Penal Code. Under the criminal code, art. 193 was part of Section I ("high treason") of chapter I ("crimes and offences against the external safety of the State");
  2. Art. 207: murder of subsidence of the constitutional order-"one who commits violent acts for the purpose of changing the constitutional form of the Romanian people, and the one who instigates the inhabitants to stand up against the constitutional powers of the Republic, commits the crime of crumbling of constitutional and order shall be punished by heavy imprisonment dela 5 to 10 years and civic degradation dela 3 to 5 years";
  3. Art. 209: murder conspiracy against social order-"to preach the word of mouth reshape democratic ruling of the State", "making propaganda for violently overthrow the existing social order in the State," "failure to establish or organize secret associations in order shown in the previous paragraph, whether or not an international character", "to work through violent means to produce terror, fear desordine, with the times in order to change the economic or social order from Romania "," failure to get in touch with any person or association with foreign or international character of the country, in order to receive instructions or aid of any kind to prepare an agenda of democratic twists of the State "," aiding in any way, a asociaţiune from abroad or in the country, which would have a purpose to fight against economic or social order from Romania "," to join or become a member of any such associations "," those who initiate, organize, or participate in some of the fascist type, political, military or paramilitary forces "and" those who, without being members of such organizations propaganda, or actions taken in favour of those organizations, their members or to the goals pursued by them ". It was the most widespread employment which were applied to those convicted of political offences.
  4. Art. 228: omission of denunciation-"he who, having knowledge of a plot or preparation of the crime provided for in art. 207, omit to denounce it, when it was still the time to British consumption of fact, commits the offence of omission of denunciation, the scheming and punished with correctional prison dela 1 to 2 years ";
  5. Art. 267: illegal-"he who enters or leaves the country by other than those intended for the passage of travellers, or even through these but in hiding, commits the offence of illegal immigration punishable with jail correctional dela 3 to 10 years and a fine at the end from 4000 40000 lei. The same punishment applies to the one that has allowed the crossing in the above conditions ".
  6. Art. 284: facilitating offender-"he who, without having had a prior understanding with the author or accomplice, before committing the crime, give their aid or protection to elude or frustrate investigations or other procedural acts of authorities, or to escape from them or from the execution of punishment".
  7. Art. 325: the spread of manifestos or forbidden publications-"to produce, sell or distribute printed writings, drawing times declared unlawful by a final court judgment. The same punishment applies to the one who places, reproduce, sell, distribute, silk-screen writings times times printed in foreign country whose introduction was prohibited by the law ".
  8. Art. 327: incitement/public agitation "who, by whatever means, directly to disobedience stir up audiences by laws or by the authorities. It also constitutes the offence of incitement and the mere fact of inciting the public, by whatever means and directly at committing any crime or offense. Anyone who, by whatever means, will take or attempt to take action against the democratic form of Government, as well as anyone who, by whatever means, will shake or will try to do agitaţiuni of which could result in a danger to the security of the State shall be punished, which from 5 to 10 years prison correctional ".

In addition to persons convicted under the Criminal Code of the period as Secretary general of the P.M.R. It was Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, there are a significant number of persons convicted under the a new Criminal Code, adopted in 1968 at. Though few compared to the number of political detainees during the ' 50s and ' 60s, these convictions are important through their very existence, which was contrary to the regime's assertions that there would be no political prisoners. There are more details in the Criminal Code since 1968, which basically admit legal abuses which were done under the previous codes.

Firstly, there is the differences compared to the old variants:

  1. The new code "no longer provide for a division of sentences into common law punishment and political punishments."
  2. Also "provide a single prison sentence called prison, compared with four such punishments as many previously existed under the Criminal Code (hard work, tough prison, prison and correctional imprisonment)".

But the most important specification, in terms of repressive character of the regime of political democracy, saying that "in the new Criminal Code provision was introduced, which is not found in the previous code, according to which the execution of the punishment shall not cause physical suffering or to degrade the detainee's person".
As for the legal classification of the facts of a political nature, since 1968, it was the title I of the Special Part of the new code, entitled "Offences against State security" (article. 155-173). Two were directions that went under penalty of the new criminal code policy: first art. 166 ("Propaganda against the Socialist system") and then the series of articles 155-157, which related to treason, and could subject their fall those who entered any contact with foreign nationals. The most telling forms, seen from the perspective of penal codes and in their spirit, was the art. 166:
"The Propaganda the fascist nature committed by any means, in public, is punishable by imprisonment from 5 to 15 years and the prohibition of certain rights. Propaganda or undertaking any action to change the Socialist system, or would result in a danger to the security of the State, is punishable by imprisonment from 5 to 15 years and the prohibition of certain rights. "

An important part of all of these handouts are made on behalf of persons who have been admitted through a simple administrative decision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which, in their case, the texts of law having only an indicative relevance. In their case it is clearly the best character of the Communist regime, which had pursued primarily eliminate by any means of ideological opponents.
In addition to those plugs, I.I.C.C.M.E.R. publishes fact sheets and reports of people who were executed during the period of the Communist regime. Here he became a division of schedule between those of common law prisoners run and those of political prisoners executed.
You can also find a list of fact sheets covering 35 figures known to the general public, who have passed through the detention of the Communist era. It is especially the politicians belonging to the interwar period, but post-Communist, and culture, exiled fighters and dissidents are well known, of various denominations and prelates even fallen out of favour former Communist regime. In alphabetical order, these individuals are as follows: Vasile Arşavir Acterian Aaa, Aurel Aldea, Va (Bartolomeu) Anania, Maria Antonescu, Constantin Argetoianu, Petre by Colonel Gheorghe Arsenescu, Colonel Gheorghe Arsenescu, Abruzzi, Nicolae Balota, Petre Mihai Băcanu, Ioan Bălan, Catherine Bălăcioiu, Aurelian Bentoiu, Oliviu Beldeanu, Mişu Benvenisti, Aristide Blank, Matei Boilă, Gheorghe Lăţescu, Constantin-7,000 inhabitants (Baba) Brătianu, Gheorghe Brătianu, Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa, Mircea Cancicov, Asha, Nicolae Carandino, Virgil Caan Victor Cădere, Radu Câmpeanu, Tit Liviu, Decebal Zack-Capper, Lena, Constantin Titel-Petrescu, Corneliu Coposu, Crainic and Gheorghe Cristescu-Plăpumarul. This section has attached a few short biographies of these figures.

I.I.C.C.M.E.R. Experts they took into account only the fact sheets found in transcripts of criminal A.N.P archive, which is at the maximum Security Prison of Jilava in Bucharest-and those found in the archives of the national archives Directorate Cluj County. All these were photocopied and processed since April 2007.
Another important indication refers to the fact that the Fund returns with political prisoners was photocopied and processed in full, as was found in the archive of the ANP, which is why these cards can be found the names of former communist officials or torturers once later in the disgrace of the regime.
Due to the extremely high volume of paperwork, so far have been completely processed only job descriptions of detainees whose names begin with the letters A, B and C, as well as fact sheets in period run the prisoners of the Communist regime. Only at these first three letters, volume of cards is approximately 28000, processed from them resulting in approximately 18880 inmates. Also, we need to specify that the name under which they were processed item cards do not contain diacritics, due to technical problems which might have arisen in this case. All documents are reproduced on the site I.I.C.C.M.E.R. exactly as they were found in the archive A.N.P.
Project inventory and publishing schedule of transcripts of former political prisoners of the prison started by I.I.C.C.M.E.R. in mid 2007 he reached the second stage, giving the public the material related to the letters D, E and f. Grand total for these three letters is approximately 11800 plugs transcripts, following the processing of which resulted in a number of political prisoners 7577.
And this time we include a list of political personalities, culture and military binecunocute who went through the communist regime's jails, of which mention generals, Nicolae Nicolae Dăscălescu Dano and Alexander c. Filitti (one of the legendary heroes of the Romanian army during the first world war), Colonel Mircea Eagar (former Chief of cabinet of Marshal Antonescu), Camil Demetrescu diplomats and Romulus Dianu , Fr. Mina Dobzeu (spiritual father Nicolae Steinhardt), Professor Silviu Dragomir (former Secretary of the great National Assembly at Alba Iulia), writer Radu Demetrescu (also known under the pen name Radu Gyr), Ion Flueraş (leader of the Romanian inter-war social-democracy) or the well-known dissident and fighter for the rights of former political prisoners Carlos-Tabula Dumitrescu.

The project is complemented by a list of acronyms and abbreviations that can be found in the schedules, transcripts in order to facilitate deciphering them by those interested.

The third phase of the project on the inventory sheets and publishing transcripts of former criminal political prisoners grouped them all political detainees whose names begin with the letters G, H, I, J or K is an approximately 17000 of plugs, belonging to a number of people about 10500, the transcripts processed sheets 57000 looking over 37000, of political prisoners.
Here are covered including top personalities of the Romanian culture and political life. Mention them Onisifor Ghibu, Panteleimon, Bishop Iuliu Hossu Halipa Street and three of the leading artisans of great Union of 1918, Pastor Richard Wurmbrand, Fr. Constantine Galerius, Vlad Georgescu, a former director of Romanian section from free Europe, Paul Goma dissidents and Dumitru Iuga, memorialiştii Ion Ioanid and Cicerone Ioniţoiu, politicians Ion Gigurtu, Emil Haţieganu, Victor J [6] its, V G Nicolae Ionescu-yellow and Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, Professor Constantin Giurescu, doctors Victor Zeta and Ion Jovin, General Joseph Franklin or aviation officers Tudor Greceanu and Gheorghe Jienescu.
The fourth phase of the release to the public the material related to the letters L, M, N and o. thus 13500 sheets other political prisoners are available on the Institute's website. .

Undertaken with the support of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, this stage represents a step further for the completion and finalization of a systematic database, available both on-line and electronically. It is very important both from the perspective of the memory of communist repression especially from the perspective of informational aid for those who want to know their own past and act according to the law 221/2009, for the purpose of obtaining compensation for the sufferings endured. Since 2007, the ROMANIAN EXILE has published fact sheets on-line transcripts for about 50000 of former political prisoners.

This part is as significant as the other with regard to presides of the intricate relationships between individual marked Communist repression. And this can be noted again by a. l. completion biographies of notable personalities of the Romanian culture and society who arrived in communist prisons, being stigmatized as "enemies of the people". I've included here General Habib Măcellariu, Ilie Lazăr's politicians, Aurel Leucuţia, John Lugoşianu, John Istrate Micescu, Lupaş, Ion Mihalache and Ion Nistor, Adrian Marino's literary critic and Professor Lucian Town. As a defining feature of the system, and the case is former Communist leader Vasile Luca, came from the Vice-President of the Council of Ministers traitor to the working class interests.

Inventory project fiches prison projects of former political prisoners of the 1989 ROMANIAN REVOLUTION, launched in mid-2007, arrived in the fifth stage, giving the public the material related to the letters P and R. Thus, the other approximately 23000 sheets political prisoners are available on the Institute's website.

Undertaken with the support of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, this is the last but one stage of processing and posting on the internet, representing the first and most important part of the ROMANIAN EXILE on a systematic database fact sheets reports criminal detainees. With the completion of the letters P and R, the provisional total of over 60000 records of political prisoners.

Exemplifying the individual fates of communist repression has at its centre a new series of personalities whose transcripts were criminal sheets found in the body of the ANP Fund. We recall here the historians Serban Papacostea and Victor Rădulescu-Zoner, politicians Nicholas Pacheco and Mihail Romniceanu Savel Rădulescu, diplomat, physician Victor Papilian, essayist, but Edgar Pappu and Elizabeth Radebe, one of the most important symbols of the Romanians ' struggle against communism. Also, and this time, the struggle for power taken to the tip of the PCR resulted in another case in the nature of communism, namely the former Communist Minister of Justice Lucreţiu Patrascanu.